Parámetros cardiometabólicos en el entrenamiento interválico de alta intensidad en personas con sobrepeso u obesidad: revisión bibliográfica

  • Julio Gallego-Méndez Departamento de didáctica de la expresión musical, plástica y corporal. Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte. Universidad de Extremadura
  • David Ramos Escudero Departamento de didáctica de la expresión musical, plástica y corporal. Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte. Universidad de Extremadura
  • José Carmelo Adsuar Sala Departamento de didáctica de la expresión musical, plástica y corporal. Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte. Universidad de Extremadura
  • Jorge Pérez-Gómez Departamento de didáctica de la expresión musical, plástica y corporal. Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte. Universidad de Extremadura
Palabras clave: Entrenamiento interválico de alta intensidad, salud cardiometabólica, composición corporal, valores lipídicos, presión sanguínea, fitness cardiorrespiratorio, obesidad, sobrepeso, HIIT

Resumen

Objetivo. El propósito de la presente revisión fue conocer cómo se ven influenciados diferentes parámetros cardiometabólicos, y/o marcadores de salud cardiometabólica, en personas con  sobrepeso u obesidad tras la aplicación de un programa de entrenamiento interválico de alta  intensidad.

Método. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en la base de datos PubMed. Se obtuvieron un total de  93 artículos. Tras analizar su contenido y aplicar los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, un total de 12  artículos fueron incluidos.

Resultados. Hay un mantenimiento o descenso significativo en ciertos casos del índice de masa  corporal (2,1±0,3%), masa corporal (3,3%, ≈2%), masa grasa (≈2%), y perímetro de cintura. Los  efectos en los valores lipídicos varían mucho entre artículos mostrando resultados contradictorios: en  algunos estudios se han observado descensos significativos en colesterol (32,4±5,2mg/dl) lipoproteínas de baja densidad (25,8±16,5mg/dl) y triglicéridos (22,9±3,4mg/dl), aunque otros estudios muestran  que no existen cambios en estos parámetros o incluso se observa un ligero incremento tras la  intervención. También existen disminuciones en el nivel de glucosa (1,1±0,11mmol/l) y presión arterial diastólica y sistólica . El pico de consumo de oxígeno presentó aumentos significativos en la mayoría de  estudios analizados (27,7±4,4%; 22,3±3,5%; 9,1%; 7,9%; 7,9%).

Conclusión. El entrenamiento interválico de alta intensidad permite mejoras en: perímetro de la  cintura, sensibilidad a la insulina, presión sanguínea y pico de consumo de oxígeno. También puede  resultar efectivo para controlar el peso corporal y reducir la masa grasa. Sin embargo, no está claro  que pueda ser efectivo para la modificación de los valores lipídicos por la controversia en los  resultados. 

 

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Publicado
2019-02-16