Efecto de la fermentación y del tostado sobre el contenido de aminas biogénicas en semillas de cacao

  • José David Mejía-Reyes Instituto de Biociencias, Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas. Boulevard Príncipe Akishino sin número, Colonia Solidaridad 2000, CP. 30798, Tapachula, Chiapas
  • Rito Coronel-Niño Instituto de Biociencias, Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas. Boulevard Príncipe Akishino sin número, Colonia Solidaridad 2000, CP. 30798, Tapachula, Chiapas
  • Didiana Gálvez-López Instituto de Biociencias, Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas. Boulevard Príncipe Akishino sin número, Colonia Solidaridad 2000, CP. 30798, Tapachula, Chiapas
  • Raymundo Rosas-Quijano Instituto de Biociencias, Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas. Boulevard Príncipe Akishino sin número, Colonia Solidaridad 2000, CP. 30798, Tapachula, Chiapas
  • Alfredo Vázquez-Ovando Instituto de Biociencias, Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas. Boulevard Príncipe Akishino sin número, Colonia Solidaridad 2000, CP. 30798, Tapachula, Chiapas https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1397-3349
Palabras clave: Tostado, amino oxidasas, levaduras, fermentación tradicional, granos sin fermentar

Resumen

Introducción. Las aminas biogénicas (AB) pueden encontrarse en alimentos sometidos a fermentación, en cantidades considerables pueden llegar a causar intoxicaciones al consumidor. 


Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la fermentación y el tostado sobre la producción-degradación de AB en semillas de cacao.


Métodos. En una primera etapa (E1), bajo un diseño completamente al azar se verificó el papel de la fermentación sobre las AB mediante cuatro tratamientos, inhibición del crecimiento de levaduras; inhibición del crecimiento bacteriano; fermentación tradicional y semillas sin fermentar. En  una segunda etapa (E2), con un diseño factorial 3X2 con medidas repetidas se evaluaron seis  tratamientos, resultado de la combinación de dos bacterias ácido lácticas (BAL) (L. plantarum, L.  fermentum, L. plantarum + L. fermentum) y dos concentraciones de cultivo iniciador (106 UFC/g, 108  UFC/g) para investigar el papel de BAL exógenas en la producción-supresión de AB.

Resultados. En la E1 se comprobó la presencia de tres AB de interés, encontrándose putrescina en mayor cantidad (37 – 45,2 μg/g de semilla). Histamina y tiramina se encontraron en menores concentraciones sin efecto de la fermentación sobre la producción de AB. La E2 permitió  observar un efecto de las BAL en la producción de putrescina, alcanzando valores hasta 41,1 μg/g  cuando se inoculó la concentración más alta de BAL durante la fermentación. Histamina se redujo en las  semillas después del tostado cuando se inoculó L. plantarum a 108 UFC/g.

Conclusión. Las BAL exógenas no tienen un papel fundamental en la producción-degradación de AB durante la fermentación de semillas de cacao.

 

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Publicado
2018-11-04