Cambio de uso del suelo en paisajes agrícolas-forestales: análisis espacial en cinco comunidades Kichwas de la Región Amazónica Ecuatoriana

  • Bolier Torres Docente Investigador, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Estatal Amazónica, Ecuador Programa de Economía de Recursos Naturales y Desarrollo Empresarial, UEA, Ecuador
  • Lucy Andrade Ingeniera Ambiental, graduada en la Universidad Estatal Amazónica, Ecuador
  • Alexandra Torres Docente Investigador, Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Estatal Amazónica, Ecuador Programa de Economía de Recursos Naturales y Desarrollo Empresarial, UEA, Ecuador
  • Cristian Vasco Docente Investigador, Universidad Central del Ecuador
  • Marco Robles The Nature Conservancy, Ecuador
Palabras clave: Tasas de deforestación, comunidades indígenas

Resumen

Resumen


La presente investigación se realizó en la zona sur de la provincia de Napo, cantón Tena, a las riberas del río Napo en las parroquias: Puerto Misahualli, Chonta Punta y Ahuano, en un área de importancia global por formar parte de las zonas de transición de las reservas de biosfera Sumaco y Yasuní. Se seleccionaron cinco comunidades mediante muestreo intencional con la finalidad de cumplir con los siguientes parámetros: ubicación de la comunidad respecto al camino transitado (cerca o lejos), grupo étnico (kichwas), tamaño de la comunidad (grande mayor de 40 hogares y pequeña menor a 40 hogares) y disponibilidad de proveer información. La metodología también usó cinco categorías de uso del suelo: bosque que se refiere a bosque nativo y secundario, sistemas agroforestales (SAF) que incluyen las áreas de realces, y la categoría
de pastos y cultivos de ciclo corto. Los resultados muestran tasas de deforestación promedio anual de entre 1,17% a 3,67% a nivel comunitario, cifras relativamente altas considerando la tasa de deforestación anual reportadas por la autoridad forestal nacional en Ecuador. Los resultados también muestran que fincas mayores a 2 hectáreas poseen áreas de bosques entre el 20% y el 84% dependiendo del tamaño. El documento finaliza con algunas recomendaciones para un mejor manejo forestal a nivel comunitario.

 

Summary


This research work was conducted in the south of the province of Napo, canton Tena. On the banks of the Napo River, specifically in the parishes: Puerto Misahualli, Chonta Punta and Ahuano. This is an area of global significance for being part of the transitional areas of the Sumaco Biosphere Reserves and Yasuni. Five communities were selected by means of intentional sampling in order to comply with the following parameters: i) Location of the community with regard to the path traveled (near or far); ii) Ethnic group
(Kichwa), size of the community (large: greater than 40 homes /small: less than 40 households) and availability to provide information. The methodology also uses five categories for land use: forest, which refers to native and secondary forest and agroforestry system (SAF), which includes the areas of enhancements, and the category of grasses and short-cycle crops. The results show average annual deforestation rates between 1.17% and 3.67% at the community level, relatively high figures considering the annual deforestation
rate reported by the national forestry authority in Ecuador. The results also show that farms larger than two hectares have forest areas between 20% and 84% depending on the size. The paper concludes with some recommendations for better forest management at the community level.

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Publicado
2019-04-11
Sección
Artículos de Investigación