• Somayyeh Khosravi Institución Universitaria Salazar y Herrera
  • Puyan Taheri Inam Khomeini International University


This study investigates the effect of summarizing, note-taking and outlining on lexical and grammatical writing accuracy of upper elementary EFL learners. To achieve the purposes of the study, 67 female students were selected from 93 female students based on their performance on an oxford placement test and were assigned to three different experimental groups. Two parallel forms of the same test with the same content were devised. At the beginning of the study, the first form was administered to evaluate the existing lexical and grammatical writing accuracy of the students. The same content was taught by the teacher to the three groups throughout the 4-sessions of treatment. Each group received three different types of treatments (summarizing, note-taking, and outlining) with the same material. The three groups received the second form of the test as their posttest. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. The results revealed that there were significant differences between pretest and posttest of the learners’ lexical and grammatical writing accuracy in the experimental groups, but the experimental group which received note-taking treatment outperformed summarizing and outlining groups in the lexical writing accuracy and the group which received summarizing treatment outperformed note-taking and outlining groups in the grammatical writing accuracy. In other words note-taking and summarizing affect the Iranian upper elementary learners’ lexical and grammatical writing accuracy respectively. Generally, the findings provide support for English teachers to use note-taking to enhance learners’ performance on lexical writing accuracy and also it is recommended to give learners summarizing assignments to improve their grammatical writing accuracy. Additionally textbook writers and syllabus designers can use the findings of the study to write more fruitfully to the learners. The results also work for students who want to find a creative way for self-study to improve their lexical and grammatical writing accuracy.

Investigando la eficacia de los resúmenes, la toma de nota y la escritura en la precisión de escritura léxica y gramatical de los aprendices de inglés como lengua extranjera de primaria superior


Este estudio investiga el efecto de los resumenes, la toma de apuntes y la escritura en la precisión de la escritura léxica y gramatical de los alumnos de inglés como lengua extranjera de primaria superior. Para lograr los propósitos del estudio, 67 estudiantes fueron seleccionadas de entre 93 mujeres en función a su desempeño en el Oxford Placement Test. Las participantes fueron asignadas a tres grupos experimentales diferentes. Se idearon dos formas paralelas de la misma prueba con el mismo contenido. Al comienzo del estudio, se administró la primera forma para evaluar la precisión de escritura gramatical y léxica existente. El mismo contenido fue enseñado por el maestro a los tres grupos durante 4 sesiones. Cada grupo recibió tres tipos diferentes de tratamientos (resumen, toma de notas y escritura) con el mismo material. Se utilizó el software SPSS para el análisis estadístico. Los resultados revelaron que hubo diferencias significativas entre la prueba de lectura léxica y gramatical de los estudiantes antes y después en los grupos experimentales, pero el grupo experimental que recibió instrucciones para la toma de notas superó a los demás grupos. En otras palabras, tomar apuntes y resumir impacta en la precisión de la escritura léxica y gramatical de los estudiantes de primaria superior. En general, los hallazgos brindan apoyo para que los maestros de inglés utilicen la toma de notas para mejorar el rendimiento de los alumnos en la precisión de la escritura léxica y también se recomienda que los alumnos resuman las tareas para mejorar su precisión en la escritura gramatical. Además, los escritores de libros de texto y los diseñadores de programas de estudios pueden utilizar los resultados del estudio para escribir de manera más fructífera a los estudiantes. Los resultados también funcionan para los estudiantes que desean encontrar una forma creativa de autoaprendizaje para mejorar su precisión en la escritura léxica y gramatical.



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