• Houshang Bahrami Institución Universitaria Salazar y Herrera
  • Fazlollah Eskandari Cherati Shahid Chamran University
  • Sajjad Barkhordari University of Theran


The aims of this study were to investigate influences of energy inputs and energy forms on output levels and evaluation of inputs sensitivity for rice production in Mazandaran province, Iran. The sensitivity of energy inputs was estimated using the marginal physical productivity (MPP) method and partial regression coefficients on rice yield. Data were collected from 72 rice farms in September 2016. The sample volume was determined by random sampling method. Total energy input was found to be 61.23 GJ ha−1 and total energy output was calculated as 139.11 GJ ha−1. The highest average energy consumption of inputs was for Irrigation canal (40.51 GJ ha−1) which was accounted for about 66% of the total energy input. Econometric model evaluation showed that the machinery energy was the most significant input affecting the output level. Sensitivity analysis results indicate that with an additional use of 1 MJ of each machinery and Toxin energy, would lead to an additional increase in yield by 0.903 and 0.511 kg, respectively. The MPP of human labor and seeds was negative. It can be because of applying the inputs more than required or improperly applying.

Uso de energía y análisis de sensibilidad de la energía con modelos económicos para la producción de arroz en el sistema semi-mecanizado de Irán


Los objetivos de este estudio fueron investigar las influencias de los insumos energéticos y las formas de energía en los niveles de producción y la evaluación para la producción de arroz en la provincia de Mazandaran, Irán. La sensibilidad de los insumos de energía se estimó utilizando el método de productividad física marginal y los coeficientes de regresión parcial en el rendimiento del arroz. Los datos se recolectaron de 72 granjas de arroz en septiembre de 2016. El volumen de la muestra se determinó mediante un método de muestreo aleatorio. Se encontró que la entrada de energía total era de 61.23 GJ ha − 1 y la salida de energía total se calculó como 139.11 GJ ha − 1. El consumo de energía promedio más alto de los insumos fue para el canal de riego (40.51 GJ ha − 1), que representó aproximadamente el 66% del aporte energético total. La evaluación del modelo econométrico mostró que la energía de la maquinaria fue la entrada más importante que afectó el nivel de salida. Los resultados del análisis de sensibilidad indican que con un uso adicional de 1 MJ de cada maquinaria, se produciría un aumento adicional en el rendimiento en 0.903 y 0.511 kg, respectivamente. La  productividad física marginal del trabajo humano y las semillas fue negativa, ésto puede ser debido a la aplicación constante de las entradas.



Awan, I.U., M. Shahid and M.A. Nadeem. (2007) Comparative study of variable seeding rates and herbicides application for weed control in direct wet seeded rice. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 3: 1824-1826.

Cetin B, Vardar A. (2008). An economic analysis of energy requirements and input costs for tomato production in Turkey. Renew Energy; 33:428–33.

Cherati, F.E., H. Bahrami and A. Asakereh, (2011). Energy survey of mechanized and traditional rice production system in Mazandaran Province of Iran. Afr. J. Agric. Res., 6(11), pp. 2565-2570.

Drechsler M. Sensitivity analysis of complex models. Biol Conserv 1998; 86(3): 401–12.

Erdal G, Esengun K, Erdal H, Gunduz O. (2007). Energy use and economical analysis of sugar beet production in Tokat province of Turkey. Energy; 32(1):35–41.

Esengun K, Gunduz O, Erdal G. (2007). Input–output energy analysis in dry apricot production of Turkey. Energy Convers Manage; 48:592–8.

Ginigaddara,G.A.S. and S.L. Ranamukhaarachchi. Effect of conventional, SRI and modified water management on growth, yield and water productivity of direct-seeded and transplanted rice in central Thailand. Aust. J. Crop Sci., 2009; 3(5): 278-286.

Hatirli SA, Ozkan B, Fert C. (2005). An econometric analysis of energy input–output in Turkish agriculture. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev.; 9(6):608–23.

Hatirli SA, Ozkan B, Fert C. (2006). Energy inputs and crop yield relationship in greenhouse tomato production. Renew Energy; 31(4):427–38.

IRRI, (2016). A Handbook of Weed Control in Rice, International Rice Research Institute. Manila, Philippines, pp: 113.

Jianbo L. (2006). Energy balance and economic benefits of two agro forestry systems in northern and southern China. Agric Ecosyst Environ; 116:255–62.

Kennedy, S., (2001). Energy Use in American agriculture. Sustainable Energy term lab/proceeding.

Kizilaslan H. (2009). Input–output energy analysis of cherries production in Tokat Province of Turkey. Appl Energy; 86(7–8):1354–8.

Mandal KG, Saha KP, Ghosh PK, Hati KM, Bandyopadhyay KK. (2002). Bioenergy and economic analysis of soybean-based crop production systems in central India. Biomass Bioenergy; 23(5):337–45.

Mobtaker HG, Keyhani A, Mohammadi A, Rafiee S, AkramA. (2010). Sensitivity analysis of energy inputs for barley production in Hamedan Province of Iran. Agric Ecosyst Environ; 137(3–4):367–72.

Mohammadi A, Omid M. (2010). Economical analysis and relation between energy inputs and yield of greenhouse cucumber production in Iran. Appl Energy; 87(1):191–6.

Mohammadi A, Tabatabaeefar A, Shahan S, Rafiee S, Keyhani A.( 2008). Energy use and economical analysis of potato production in Iran a case study: Ardabil province. Energy Convers Manage; 49(12):3566–70.

Mohammadi A, Rafiee Sh, Mohtasebi SS, Rafiee H. (2010). Energy inputs–yield relationship and cost analysis of kiwifruit production in Iran. Renew Energy; 35(5): 1071–5.

Moradi, M., and E. Azarpour. (2011). Study of energy indices for native and breed rice varieties production in Iran. World applied sciences journal; 13(1): 137-141.0.

Ozkan B, Akcaoz H, Fert C. (2004). Energy input–output analysis in Turkish agriculture. Renew Energy; 29(1):39–51.

Pathak, B., and A. Binning. (1985). Energy use pattern and potential for energy saving in rice-wheat cultivation. Agric energy; 4: 271-280.

Rafiee Sh, Mousavi Avval SH, Mohammadi A. (2010). Modeling and sensitivity analysis of energy inputs for apple production in Iran. Energy; 35:3301–6.

Samadi-Maybodi, A. and E. Atashbozorg. (2006). Quantitative and qualitative studies of silica in different rice samples grown in north of Iran using UV-vis, XRD and IR spectroscopy techniques. Talanta,; 70: 756-760.

Sartori L, Basso B, Bertocco M, Oliviero G. (2005). Energy use and economic evaluation of a three year crop rotation for conservation and organic farming in NE Italy. Biosyst Eng; 91(2):245–56.

Sinha, S.K. and J. Talati,. (2007). Productivity impacts of the system of rice intensification (SRI): A case study in West Bengal, India. Agr. Water Manag; 87: 55-60.

Singh, S., and J.P. Mital., (1992). Energy in Production Agriculture. Mittal Pub, New Delhi.

Singh JM. ( 2002). On farm energy use pattern in different cropping systems in Haryana, India. Master of Science. Germany: International Institute of Management, University of Flensburg.

Singh S, Singh S, Pannu CJS, Singh J. (2000). Optimization of energy input for raising cotton crop in Punjab. Energy Convers Manage; 41(17):1851–61.

Singh H, Mishra D, Nahar NM, Ranjan M. (2003). Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in arid zone India: part II. Energy Convers Manage; 44(7): 1053–67.

Singh G, Singh S, Singh J. (2004). Optimization of energy inputs for wheat crop in Punjab. Energy Convers Manage; 45(3):453–65.

Strapatsa AV, Nanos GD, Tsatsarelis CA. (2006). Energy flow for integrated apple production in Greece. Agric Ecosyst Environ; 116(3–4):176–80.

Tsatsarelis CA. (1993). Energy inputs and outputs for soft winter wheat production in Greece. Agric Ecosyst Environ; 43:109–18.

Unakitan G, Hurma H, Yilmaz F. (2010). An analysis of energy use efficiency of canola production in Turkey. Energy; 35:3623–7.

Yamane, T., (1967). Elementary Sampling Theory. Engle Wood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall Inc., USA.

Yaldiz,O., H.H. Ozturk, Y ,Zeren., and A Bascetincelik.,( 1993). Energy usage in production of field crops in Turkey. In: Vth international congress on mechanization and energy in agriculture. Izmir-Turkey, pp. 527-536 [in Turkish].

Yilmaz I, Akcaoz H, Ozkan B. (2005). An analysis of energy use and input costs for cotton production in Turkey. Renew Energy; 30(2):145–55.

Yoo,S,H,, and S.J. Yeony.,( 1991). Soil management for sustainable Agriculture in Korea. Seoul National University, Suwon, Korea.